Database refinement efforts were initiated from RVDBv19.0. These include removal of misannotated sequences and irrelevant viral sequences in U-RVDB, before clustering. Please refer to the Annotation Sheet for further details.


Reference Viral Database (RVDB) is developed by Arifa Khan's group at CBER, FDA for enhancing virus detection using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. RVDB is available as Unclustered (U-) and Clustered (C-) nucleotide sequence files. The scripts and steps involved in generating and updating RVDB have been assembled into a pipeline (reported in mSphere) and is available with instructions at GitHub. Terms of use for RVDB are listed here

The SQLite form of U-RVDB is provided using the sqlite3 module available in python, as described by GitHub. From version 15.1 and thereafter, the RVDB SQLDB is converted to SQLite to provide a flexible import format.

A proteic version of RVDB, was developed by Marc Eloit’s group at Institut Pasteur (RVDB-prot and RVDB-prot-HMM). The proteic RVDB may be used to complement analysis using these nucleotidic databases.


Unclustered (U-) nucleotide sequence files.

RVDB Version (Release date) Sequence files in FASTA format Sequence files in SQLite format Release notes in plain text file
Current Release v25.0 (Nov 16, 2022) U-RVDBv25.0.fasta U-RVDBv25.0.sqlite U-RVDBv25.0.release notes
v24.1 (July, 01 2022) U-RVDBv24.1.fasta U-RVDBv24.1.sqlite U-RVDBv24.1.release notes
v23.0 (Dec, 23 2021) U-RVDBv23.0.fasta U-RVDBv23.0.sqlite U-RVDBv23.0.release notes
v22.0 (June 29 2021) U-RVDBv22.0.fasta U-RVDBv22.0.sqlite U-RVDBv22.0.release notes
v21.0 (Feb, 15 2021) U-RVDBv21.0.fasta U-RVDBv21.0.sqlite U-RVDBv21.0.release notes
v20.0 (Sept, 3 2020) U-RVDBv20.0.fasta U-RVDBv20.0.sqlite U-RVDBv20.0.release notes
v19.0 (Jun 29, 2020) U-RVDBv19.0.fasta U-RVDBv19.0.sqlite U-RVDBv19.0.release notes
v18.0 (Mar 2, 2020) U-RVDBv18.0.fasta U-RVDBv18.0.sqlite U-RVDBv18.0.release notes
v17.0 (Nov 6, 2019) U-RVDBv17.0.fasta U-RVDBv17.0.sqlite U-RVDBv17.0.release notes
v16.0 (May 29, 2019) U-RVDBv16.0.fasta U-RVDBv16.0.sqlite U-RVDBv16.0.release notes
v15.1 (Feb 6, 2019) U-RVDBv15.1.fasta U-RVDBv15.1.sqlite U-RVDBv15.1.release notes
v14.0 (Oct 1, 2018) U-RVDBv14.0.fasta U-RVDBv14.0.sqlite U-RVDBv14.0.release notes
v13.0 (Jun 11, 2018) U-RVDBv13.0.fasta U-RVDBv13.0.sqlite U-RVDBv13.0.release notes
v12.2 (Feb 12, 2018) U-RVDBv12.2.fasta Not Available U-RVDBv12.2.release notes
v11.5 (Sept 27, 2017) U-RVDBv11.5.fasta Not Available U-RVDBv11.5.release notes
v11.3 (Aug 1, 2017) U-RVDBv11.3.fasta Not Available U-RVDBv11.3.release notes
v10.2 (U-May 5, 2017; C-Dec. 28, 2016) U-RVDBv10.2.fasta Not Available U-RVDBv10.2.release notes


Clustered (C-) nucleotide sequence files.

RVDB Version (Release date) Sequence files in FASTA format Release notes in plain text file
Current Release v25.0 (Nov 16, 2022) C-RVDBv25.0.fasta C-RVDBv25.0.release notes
v24.1 (July, 01 2022) C-RVDBv24.1.fasta C-RVDBv24.1.release notes
v23.0 (Dec, 23 2021) C-RVDBv23.0.fasta C-RVDBv23.0.release notes
v22.0 (June 29 2021) C-RVDBv22.0.fasta C-RVDBv22.0.release notes
v21.0 (Feb, 15 2021) C-RVDBv21.0.fasta C-RVDBv21.0.release notes
v20.0 (Sept, 3 2020) C-RVDBv20.0.fasta C-RVDBv20.0.release notes
v19.0 (Jun 29, 2020) C-RVDBv19.0.fasta C-RVDBv19.0.release notes
v18.0 (Mar 2, 2020) C-RVDBv18.0.fasta C-RVDBv18.0.release notes
v17.0 (Nov 6, 2019) C-RVDBv17.0.fasta C-RVDBv17.0.release notes
v16.0 (May 29, 2019) C-RVDBv16.0.fasta C-RVDBv16.0.release notes
v15.1 (Feb 6, 2019) C-RVDBv15.1.fasta C-RVDBv15.1.release notes
v14.0 (Oct 1, 2018) C-RVDBv14.0.fasta C-RVDBv14.0.release notes
v13.0 (Jun 11, 2018) C-RVDBv13.0.fasta C-RVDBv13.0.release notes
v12.2 (Feb 12, 2018) C-RVDBv12.2.fasta C-RVDBv12.2.release notes
v11.5 (Sept 27, 2017) C-RVDBv11.5.fasta C-RVDBv11.5.release notes
v11.3 (Aug 1, 2017) C-RVDBv11.3.fasta C-RVDBv11.3.release notes
v10.2 (U-May 5, 2017; C-Dec. 28, 2016) C-RVDBv10.2.fasta C-RVDBv10.2.release notes

Citing RVDB

Goodacre N, Aljanahi A, Nandakumar S, Mikailov M, Khan AS. A Reference Viral Database (RVDB) To Enhance Bioinformatics Analysis of High-Throughput Sequencing for Novel Virus Detection. mSphere. 2018 Mar 14;3(2). pii: e00069-18. doi: 10.1128/mSphereDirect.00069-18. eCollection 2018 Mar-Apr. PubMed PMID: 29564396; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5853486.


If you have any questions or comments regarding RVDB nucleotidic databases, please contact Arifa Khan ( If you have any technical questions or comments regarding the website, please contact the Bioinformatics Core at University of Delaware